Illinois Prosthetics Technology
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Types of Joint Prosthetics January 16, 2015

The cartilage pads the in-between of the bones in a joint. It can wear down over time which will lead the bones to be rubbing against each other and this will be causing severe pain as well as decreased movement. The prosthetics are the ones commonly used in replacing the joints which have already been damaged. Prosthesis is the replacement of a missing part by making use of an artificial substitute. The replacement or the addition of structural elements which are within a joint for the enhancement and improvement of the function of the joint is referred to as joint prosthesis.

Joint arthroplasty is the most common orthopedic procedure that is performed following a fracture fixation. The major indications for the joint replacement include the inflammatory arthropathy, complicated fractures, degenerative joint disease, and avascular necrosis. Joint arthroplasty is contraindicated for systemic and joint infection as well as for neuropathic joint.

hip-joint-prostheticsBelow are the various types of joint prosthetics:

• Hip Replacement – It is a surgical procedure wherein the joint in the hip is being replaced with a prosthetic implant. It may be performed as a half replacement which replaces only the femoral head. It can also be performed as a total replacement wherein it replaces both of the femoral head and the acetabulum.

• Knee Replacement – It is otherwise known as the knee arthroplasty. It is a surgical procedure for the replacement of the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint for the purpose of relieving both pain and disability. The performance of the knee replacement surgery can be as a total or partial knee replacement. Generally, the surgery consists of the replacement of the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the knee using metal and plastic components which are shaped to let the knee have the continued motion.

• Shoulder Replacement – It is a surgical procedure wherein a part of all of the glenohumeral joint is being replaced with a prosthetic implant. The general purpose of the joint replacement surgery is for the relief of arthritis pain or to fix severe physical damage of the joint.

• Ankle Replacement – It is otherwise known as the ankle arthroplasty. It is a surgical procedure performed for the replacement of the damaged articular surfaces of the ankle joint in humans using the prosthetic components. The key feature of the ankle replacement is to restore the range of motion. Its prosthesis replicates the original joint function as it restores the appropriate kinematics at the joint that is being replaced. It permits a good fixation of the components where there is involvement of an appropriate load transfer to the bone and will have minimal risk of loosening. It provides a guaranteed longevity of the implant that is particularly related to wear resistance.

Like any other surgical procedure, joint replacement may pose some risks. It is essential to consult with the doctors to know the potential risks and complications especially those that are related to the surgery itself or those which may happen over time following the surgery.